Posts Tagged ‘learn’

Ir (to go)
Yo voy I go/I am going
Tú vas You go/ You are going
él va He goes/ He is going
Ella va She goes/ She is going
Vd. va You go/ You are going (Sglr)
Nosotros vamos We go/ We are going
Vosotros vais You go/ You are going
Ellos van They go / They are going
Ellas van They go / They are going
Vds. van They go / They are going

Examples

Have you seen John today? Ha visto Vd. hoy Juan?
Are you looking for your brother? Busca Vd. su hermano?
I am listening to the birds, their voices are very tuneful. Yo escucho los pajaros, sus voces son muy melodiosas.

Past tense and Present Perfect Tense used alternatively in Spanish.

When did you see soldiers? (When have you seen the soldiers?) Cuando ha visto Vd. los soldados?
What did you say to the lawyer? Qué ha dicho Vd. al abogado?
Today I have worked much but I am not tired. Hoy yo he trabajado mucho, pero yo no estoy cansado.
Where is the general? He is working in the garden. Donde está el general? él está trabajando en el jardin.
She is writing to her cousin. Ella está escribiendo a su primo.
The bird is singing in the garden. El pájaro está cantando en el jardin.
How many workmen did you see in the fields? A cuántos obreros ha visto ha visto Vd. en los campos.
The pupils are in the school, listening to the professor. Los alumnos están  en la escuela, escuchando al professor.
The generals have missed the train. Los generals han perdido el tren.
Have you seen to the soldiers who have arrived from Madrid? (Have seen you) Ha visto Vd. a lost soldados que ha llegado de Madrid
I have sold my books and I have enough money to buy two bottles of wine. Yo he vendido mis libros y yo tengo bastante dinero para comprar doce botellas de vino.
I have enough money to travel to Madrid Yo tengo bastante dinero para viajar a Madrid.
The woman has sent a letter to her son, who has a house in Madrid, with two rooms. La mujer ha mandado una carta a su hijo, que tiene una casa en Madrid, con doce habitaciónes.

I look/ I am looking is one and the same as far as translation is concerned.

I am looking for the newspaper, which John has lost. Yo busco el periodic, que ha perdido Juan.
Have you bought the watches? (Have bought you) Ha comprador Vd. los relojes?
Have they not sold their cars? (Not have sold they) No ha vendido ellos sus autómoviles?
The man wishes to call to his wife. El hombre quiere llemar a su mujer. (la mujer de él)
Have you seen to the uncle of the doctor? (Have seen you) Ha visto vd. al tío del medico?
Have you enough money in your pocket to buy apples? Tiene Vd. bastante dinero en sus bolsillo para comprar manzanas.
  Masculine Feminine
  Singular Plural Singular Plural
My Mi Mis Mi Mis
They (your) Tu Tus Tu Tus
His/her/its/their/your Su Sus Su Sus (de Vd. = your)
Our Nuestro Nuestros Nuestra Nuestras
Your Vuestro Vuestros Vuestra Vuestras

 

Examples

My friend and his wife will take the train immediately Mi amigo y su mujer tomarán el tren luego
The kings have their palaces, we have our houses El reyes tienen sus palacios, nosotros tenemos nuestras casas
I will speak to my husband and to his friends Yo hablaré a mi marido (esposo) y a sus amigos
I will buy your house, it has seven rooms Yo compraré la casa de Vd., tiene seita habitaciones
We shall arrive at Madrid in our car Nosotros llegaremos a Madrid en nuestro automóvil
My grandfather takes a cup of coffee with his wife Mi abuelo toma taza de café con su mujer
Your friend has a house with eight rooms El amigo Vd. de tiene una casa con ocho habitaciones
We shall buy a house in the centre of the city where there is a square Nosotros compraremos una casa en el centro de la ciudad, donde hay una plaza
They are twelve houses in the street Hay doce casas en la calle
They have two motor cars Vosotros tienen dos automóviles
The doctor has six horses El medico tiene seis caballos
Have you wine in your bottle? Tiene Vd. vino en su botella?
She will buy some apples Ella compara unas manzanas
When will you take your hat? Cuando tomara Vd. su sombrero?
Luego Shortly/Immediately
Bottela Bottle
Habitación Room
Vino Wine
Café Coffee (M)
Estación Station
Llegar To arrive
Con With
De Of/From
A To/At
En In
Plaza Square
Taza Cup
Hay There is/There are
Hoy Today
Comprar To buy

 

We shall buy the house in the sky Nosotros compraremos la casa en la ciudad
We buy the house Nosotros compramos la casa
I will speak to the friend and the girlfriend Yo hablaré al amigo y la amiga
I will take the train immediately Yo tomaré el tren luego
We shall arrive at Madrid today Nosotros llegaremos a Madrid hoy

 

Tomar (to take)

Present Tense Future Tense
Yo tomO I take/I am taking Yo tomarÉ I will take
Tú tomAS You take/You are taking Tú tomaráS You will take
Él tomA He takes/He is taking Él tomará He will take
Ella tomA She takes/She is taking Ella tomará She will take
Vd. TomA You take/You are taking Vd. tomará You will take
Nosotros tomAMOS We take/We are taking Nosotros tomarEMOS We will take
Vosotros tomáIS You take/You are taking Vosotros tomarÉIS You will take
Ellos tomAN They take/They are taking (M. Plr.) Ellos tomaráN They will take(M. Plr.)
Ellas tomAN They take/They are taking (F. Plr.) Ellas tomaráN They will take (F. Plr.)
Vds. tomAN You take/You are taking (Plr.) Vds. tomaráN You will take(Plr.)

Present participle = tomando (taking)
Past participle = tomado (taken)
Yo he tomado (I have taken)

Comer (to eat)

Present Tense Future Tense
Yo comO I eat/I am eating Yo comerÉ I will eat
Tú comES You eat/You are eating Tú comeráS You will eat
Él comE He eat/He is eating Él comerá He will eat
Ella comE She eat/She is eating Ella comerá She will eat
Vd. come You eat/You are eating Vd. comerá You will eat
Nosotros comEMOS We eat/We are eating Nosotros comerEMOS We will eat
Vosotros comÉIS You eat/You are eating Vosotros comerÉIS You will eat
Ellos comEN They eat/They are eating (M. Plr.) Ellos comeráN They will eat(M. Plr.)
Ellas comEN They eat/They are eating (F. Plr.) Ellas comeráN They will eat(F. Plr.)
Vds. comEN You eat/You are eating (Plr.) Vds. comeráN You will eat(Plr.)

Present participle = comiendo (eating)
Past participle = comido (eaten)

Vivir (to live)

Present Tense Future Tense
Yo vivO I live/I am living Yo vivirÉ I will live
Tú vivES You live/You are living Tú viviráS You will live
Él vivE He live/He is living Él vivirá He will live
Ella vivE She live/She is living Ella vivirá She will live
Vd. vive You live/You are living Vd. vivirá You will live
Nosotros vivIMOS We live/We are living Nosotros vivirEMOS We will live
Vosotros vivíS You live/You are living Vosotros vivirÉIS You will live
Ellos vivEN They live/They are living (M. Plr.) Ellos viviráN They will live(M. Plr.)
Ellas vivEN They live/They are living (F. Plr.) Ellas viviráN They will live(F. Plr.)
Vds. vivEN You live/You are living (Plr.) Vds. viviráN You will live(Plr.

Present participle = viviendo (living)
Past participle = vivido (lived)
Yo estoy viviendo (I am living) Yo he vivido (I have lived)

 

Tener (to have) for possession (I have a house)

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo tengo (I have) Nosotros tenemos (we have) Nosotras tenemos (we have)
Tú tienes (you have) Vosotros tenéis (you have) Vosotras tenéis (you have)
él tiene  (he has) Ellos tienen (they have)  
Ella tiene (she has)   Ellas tienen (they have)
Vd./usted tiene(You have) (respectfully) Vds. tienen (you have)  

Present participle = teniendo      Past participle = tenido

Haber (to have) for compound verb (I have purchased a watch)

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo he (I have) Nosotros hemos (we have) Nosotras hemos (we have)
Tú has (you have) Vosotros habéis (you have) Vosotras habéis (you have)
él ha  (he has) Ellos han (they have)  
Ella ha (she has)   Ellas han (they have)
Vd./usted ha(You have) (respectfully) Vds. han (you have)  

Present participle = habiendo     Past participle = habido

Possession Examples

The house has a door La casa tiene una puerta
I have a house You tengo un caballo
The boy has a book El muchacho tiene un libro
They have a book Ellos tienen un libro
They do not have a book Ellos no tienen un libro
Have you a house? (Plural) Tenéis vosotros un caballo?

Personal pronoun and Forms of “to be”

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo (I) Nostotros (we) Nosotras (we)
Tú (you) Vosotros (you) Vosotras (you)
él (he) Ellos (they)  
Ella (she)   Ellas (they)

Vuestra merced: your grace or your honor
Short form: Vd. Or usted

Forms of “to be”

Estar (to be) for temporary conditions

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo estoy (I am) Nosotros estamos (we are) Nosotras estamos (we are)
Tú estás (you are) Vosotros estáis (you are) Vosotras estáis (you are)
él está (he is) Ellos están (they are)  
Ellas está (she is)   Ellas están (they are)
Vd. Está (You are: respectfully) Vds. Están  

 

SER (to be) for permanent conditions

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo soy (I am) Nosotros somos (we are) Nosotras somos (we are)
Tú eres (you are) Vosotros sois (you are) Vosotras sois (you are)
él es  (he is) Ellos son (they are)  
Ellas es (she is)   Ellas son (they are)
Vd. Es (You are: respectfully) Vds. Son  

 

Examples
La botella esta vacía: The bottle is empty
La botella es de vidrio: The bottle is of glass
él es medico: He is doctor
El médico está aqui: The doctor is here
Ali: Here
Aquí: There

Nouns ending in a/d/ion/z are feminine

Nouns ending in o/or/al/ador are masculine

El muchacho The boy
El amigo The friend
El libro The book

El soldado

The soldier

El palacio

the soldier

El rey

The king

La muchacha

The girl

la amiga

The girl-friend

La mesa

The table

Una mazana

An apple

La casa

The house

La puerta

The door

La ciudad

The city

Plural of Nouns
1. Nouns ending in vowels are formed plural by adding ‘s’
El palacio: los palacios

2. Nouns ending in consonants and ‘y’ are formed by adding ‘es’
La ciudad: las ciudades

3. Nouns ending in ‘z’ are formed plural by changing ‘z’ to ‘ces’
El lapis: los lapices (the pencils)
La voz: laz voces (the voices)

Strong and Weak Vowels
a/o/e are strong vowels
i/u are weak vowels

Accented words
Lápiz: acute accent: laapiz (pencil)
Mañana: tilde accent: manyana (tomorrow)
El Niño (the child)

Here comes the first difference between English and Spanish. In English articles does not vary with gender. In Spanish they do vary.

Definite article (The)

THE
Singular Plural
Masculine
el los
The man: el hombre The men: los hombres
Feminine
la las
The woman: la mujer The women: las mujeres

We see here that articles change with masculine and feminine, singular and plural.
THE is signified by el, los, la, las in the above example.

Indefinite article (A, An)

A
Singular Plural
Masculine
Uno Unos
a man: un hombre some men: unos hombres
Feminine
Una Unas
a woman: una mujer some women: unas mujeres

 

Derivations

a: to/at

A + el hombre

To the man

Al hombre

De: of/from

De + el hombre

Of the man

Del hombre

In is written as en in spanish.

i: ivory, international

w: wind, wine

e: edward, equation

Listen to the pronunciation of words. Observe how the i changes from ivory (aaaeee) to international (e), w changes from wind (v) to wine (y), e changes from Edward (ei) to equation (e).

Best is not to reason why’s of it. Try and get accustomed to the fact. Fact being that when alphabets combine, different pronunciations ought to arise.