Tener (to have) for possession (I have a house)

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo tengo (I have) Nosotros tenemos (we have) Nosotras tenemos (we have)
Tú tienes (you have) Vosotros tenéis (you have) Vosotras tenéis (you have)
él tiene  (he has) Ellos tienen (they have)  
Ella tiene (she has)   Ellas tienen (they have)
Vd./usted tiene(You have) (respectfully) Vds. tienen (you have)  

Present participle = teniendo      Past participle = tenido

Haber (to have) for compound verb (I have purchased a watch)

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo he (I have) Nosotros hemos (we have) Nosotras hemos (we have)
Tú has (you have) Vosotros habéis (you have) Vosotras habéis (you have)
él ha  (he has) Ellos han (they have)  
Ella ha (she has)   Ellas han (they have)
Vd./usted ha(You have) (respectfully) Vds. han (you have)  

Present participle = habiendo     Past participle = habido

Possession Examples

The house has a door La casa tiene una puerta
I have a house You tengo un caballo
The boy has a book El muchacho tiene un libro
They have a book Ellos tienen un libro
They do not have a book Ellos no tienen un libro
Have you a house? (Plural) Tenéis vosotros un caballo?

Personal pronoun and Forms of “to be”

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo (I) Nostotros (we) Nosotras (we)
Tú (you) Vosotros (you) Vosotras (you)
él (he) Ellos (they)  
Ella (she)   Ellas (they)

Vuestra merced: your grace or your honor
Short form: Vd. Or usted

Forms of “to be”

Estar (to be) for temporary conditions

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo estoy (I am) Nosotros estamos (we are) Nosotras estamos (we are)
Tú estás (you are) Vosotros estáis (you are) Vosotras estáis (you are)
él está (he is) Ellos están (they are)  
Ellas está (she is)   Ellas están (they are)
Vd. Está (You are: respectfully) Vds. Están  

 

SER (to be) for permanent conditions

Singular Plural
  Male Female
Yo soy (I am) Nosotros somos (we are) Nosotras somos (we are)
Tú eres (you are) Vosotros sois (you are) Vosotras sois (you are)
él es  (he is) Ellos son (they are)  
Ellas es (she is)   Ellas son (they are)
Vd. Es (You are: respectfully) Vds. Son  

 

Examples
La botella esta vacía: The bottle is empty
La botella es de vidrio: The bottle is of glass
él es medico: He is doctor
El médico está aqui: The doctor is here
Ali: Here
Aquí: There

Nouns ending in a/d/ion/z are feminine

Nouns ending in o/or/al/ador are masculine

El muchacho The boy
El amigo The friend
El libro The book

El soldado

The soldier

El palacio

the soldier

El rey

The king

La muchacha

The girl

la amiga

The girl-friend

La mesa

The table

Una mazana

An apple

La casa

The house

La puerta

The door

La ciudad

The city

Plural of Nouns
1. Nouns ending in vowels are formed plural by adding ‘s’
El palacio: los palacios

2. Nouns ending in consonants and ‘y’ are formed by adding ‘es’
La ciudad: las ciudades

3. Nouns ending in ‘z’ are formed plural by changing ‘z’ to ‘ces’
El lapis: los lapices (the pencils)
La voz: laz voces (the voices)

Strong and Weak Vowels
a/o/e are strong vowels
i/u are weak vowels

Accented words
Lápiz: acute accent: laapiz (pencil)
Mañana: tilde accent: manyana (tomorrow)
El Niño (the child)

Here comes the first difference between English and Spanish. In English articles does not vary with gender. In Spanish they do vary.

Definite article (The)

THE
Singular Plural
Masculine
el los
The man: el hombre The men: los hombres
Feminine
la las
The woman: la mujer The women: las mujeres

We see here that articles change with masculine and feminine, singular and plural.
THE is signified by el, los, la, las in the above example.

Indefinite article (A, An)

A
Singular Plural
Masculine
Uno Unos
a man: un hombre some men: unos hombres
Feminine
Una Unas
a woman: una mujer some women: unas mujeres

 

Derivations

a: to/at

A + el hombre

To the man

Al hombre

De: of/from

De + el hombre

Of the man

Del hombre

In is written as en in spanish.

i: ivory, international

w: wind, wine

e: edward, equation

Listen to the pronunciation of words. Observe how the i changes from ivory (aaaeee) to international (e), w changes from wind (v) to wine (y), e changes from Edward (ei) to equation (e).

Best is not to reason why’s of it. Try and get accustomed to the fact. Fact being that when alphabets combine, different pronunciations ought to arise.